Class 12 History - Chapter / Theme 3 : Kinship, Caste and Class - Early Societies

List of Questions and Answers

1.Explain any two strategies evolved by the Brahmins to enforce Varna order during the Mahabharata period.
(Chapter 3 : Kinship, Caste and Class - Early Societies)

The strategies were as follows:

  • One, was to assert that the varna order was of divine origin.
  • They advised kings to ensure that these norms were followed within their kingdoms.
  • They attempted to persuade people that their status was determined by birth.

2.Examine any two evidences found by the archaeologist B.B. Lal after excavation at a village named Hastinapur in Meerut, Uttar Pradesh.
(Chapter 3 : Kinship, Caste and Class : Early Societies)

The findings were as follows:

  • The limited area excavated, no definite plans of houses were obtained, but walls of mud and mud-bricks were duly encountered.
  • The discovery of mud-plaster with prominent reed-marks suggested that some of the houses had reed walls plastered over with mud.
  • Houses of this period were built of mud-brick as well as burnt bricks.
  • Soakage jars and brick drains were used for draining out refuse water, while terracotta ring-wells may have been used both as wells and drainage pits.

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