Class 12 History - Chapter / Theme 9: Kings and Chronicles - The Mughal Courts

List of Questions and Answers

1.With which of the following responsibilities Mir Bakshi was the officer in Akbar's reign?
a) Revenue Collection
b) Payment of salaries
c) Head of the military administration
d) Head of Nobility
(Chapter 9: Kings and Chronicles - The Mughal Courts)

Ans: c) Head of the military administration

2.Mention one reason why Qandahar was a bone of contention between the Safavids and the Mughals.
(Chapter 9: Kings and Chronicles - The Mughal Courts)

The fortress-town had initially been in the possession of Humayun, reconquered in 1595 by Akbar. While the Safavid court retained diplomatic relations with the Mughals, it continued to stake claims to Qandahar.

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3. How did the Mughals maintain good relationship with the Jesuits ?
(Chapter 9 : Kings and Chronicles - The Mughal Courts)

Ans:Akbar was curious about Christianity and dispatched an embassy to Goa to invite Jesuit priests. The first Jesuit mission reached the Mughal court at Fatehpur Sikri in 1580 and stayed for about two years. The Jesuits spoke to Akbar about Christianity and debated its virtues with the ulama. Two more missions were sent to the Mughal court at Lahore, in 1591 and 1595.

4.Analyse the role of Abul Fazl in the empire of Akbar.
(Chapter 9: Kings and Chronicles - The Mughal Courts)


  • Abu'l Fazl worked on the Akbar Nama for thirteen years, repeatedly revising the draft.
  • Abu'l Fazl wrote in a language that was ornate and which attached importance to diction and rhythm, as texts were often read aloud.

5. Why did Akbar show high respect towards the inter-faith debates? Give two reasons.
(Chapter 9 : Kings and Chronicles - The Mughal Courts)


  • The emperor was very curious for religious knowledge of Hindus, Jainas, Parsis and Christians.
  • He started a debate called inter-faith debates so that all members of all religions can participate.

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6.Mention the peculiarities of the Humayun Nama written by Gulbadan Begam.
(Chapter 9:Kings and Chronicles - The Mughal Courts)


  • A glimpse into the domestic world of the Mughals.
  • No eulogy of the Mughal emperors.
  • She described in great detail the conflicts and tensions among the princes and kings and the important mediating role elderly women of the family played in resolving some of these conflicts.

7. Examine the religious policy of the Mughals.
(Chapter 9:Kings and Chronicles : The Mughal Courts)


  • Mughal chronicles present the empire as comprising many different ethnic and religious communities – Hindus, Jainas, Zoroastrians and Muslims.
  • The emperor stood above all religious and ethnic groups, mediated among them, and ensured that justice and peace prevailed.
  • In sulh-i kul all religions and schools of thought had freedom of expression but without interference with the authority of the state or fight among themselves.
  • The ideal of sulh-i kul was implemented through state policies among Iranis, Turanis, Afghans, Rajputs, Deccanis – all of whom were given positions and awards purely on the basis of their service and loyalty to the king.
  • Akbar abolished the tax on pilgrimage in 1563 and jizya in 1564 as the two were based on religious discrimination.
  • Instructions were sent to officers of the empire to follow the precept of sulh-i kul in administration.

More Questions and Answers from Board Papers Coming Soon