Class 12 History - Chapter / Theme 12 : Colonial Cities - Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture

List of Questions and Answers

1.Explain the reasons why the British took upon themselves the task of town planning from the early years of their rule in Bengal. Mention any two steps taken by them to clean Calcutta.
(Chapter 12 : Colonial Cities - Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture)


  • The British did not have faith in , Sirajudaula, the Nawab of Bengal as he had attacked the fort, so British themselves took the task of town planning.One main motive of them was defence.
  • When Sirajudaula was defeated in the Battle of Plassey, the East India Company decided to build a new fort, one that could not be easily attacked.
  • They created open places in the city , as there was crowding, excessive vegetation, the dirty tanks, the smells and poor drainage which was the main concern for diseases in the city.
  • Many bazaars, ghats, burial grounds, and tanneries were cleared or removed.
  • The notion of "public health" became an idea that was proclaimed in projects of town clearance and town planning.

2.Why was the Colonial Government keen on carrying out regular surveys and mapping various parts of the country ? Explain.
(Chapter 12 : Colonial Cities - Urbanisation, Planning and Architecture)


  • To keep track of life in the growing cities, they carried out regular surveys, gathered statistical data, and published various official reports.
  • It felt that good maps were necessary to understand the landscape and know the topography and also knowledge of the region.
  • When towns began to grow, maps were prepared not only to plan the development of these towns but also to develop commerce and consolidate power.
  • The town maps give information regarding the location of hills, rivers and vegetation, all important for planning structures for defence purposes.
  • They also show the location of ghats, density and quality of houses and alignment of roads, used to gauge commercial possibilities and plan strategies of taxation.

More Questions and Answers from Board Papers Coming Soon