1.In 1954 , the Panchsheel agreement was signed between India and _____________.
Ans: (b) China
2.Name the Tibetan spiritual leader who sought political asylum in India in 1959.
Ans: Dalai Lama
3.Examine the effects of Chinese invasion of 1962 on India.
Following are the effects of Chinese invasion of 1962.
- A boundary dispute had surfaced between India and China. And another main dispute was
China claimed two areas within the Indian territory: Aksai-chin area in the Ladakh
region of Jammu and Kashmir and much of the state of Arunachal Pradesh.
- Between 1957 and 1959, the Chinese occupied the Aksai-chin area and built a strategic
road there. Despite a very long correspondence and discussion among top leaders,
these differences could not be resolved.
- China launched a swift and massive invasion in October 1962 on both the disputed regions.
- The China war dented India’s image at home and abroad. India had to approach the Americans
and the British for military assistance to tide over the crisis.
- Nehru was severely criticised for his naïve assessment of the Chinese intentions and
the lack of military preparedness and a no-confidence motion against his government
was moved and debated in the Lok Sabha.
- The war with China alerted Indian leadership to the volatile situation in the Northeast
- After the China war Nagaland was granted statehood; Manipur and Tripura, though Union
Territories, were given the right to elect their own legislative assemblies.
4.The foreign policy of India was based on the principle of 'Non alignment'. Nehru played a vital role in formulating it. Discuss the basic objectives of Nehruvian foreign Policy.
Jawaharlal Nehru both as the Prime Minister and the Foreign Minister, exercised profound influence in the formulation and implementation of India’s foreign policy from 1946 to 1964.
The three major objectives of Nehru’s foreign policy were :
- to preserve the hard-earned sovereignty,
- protect territorial integrity, and
- promote rapid economic development
5.Critically evaluate India's nuclear policy.
- Nehru had faith in science and technology for rapidly building a modern India.
- The nuclear programme was initiated in the late 1940s under the guidance of Homi J. Bhabha.
- India wanted to generate atomic energy for peaceful purposes.
- The first nuclear explosion undertaken by India in May 1974 was termed as peaceful explosion.
- India opposed the indefinite extension of the NPT in 1995 and also refused to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).
- India conducted a series of nuclear tests in May 1998, demonstrating its capacity to use nuclear energy for military purposes.
6.List out the war and treaties between India and Pakistan.
War between India and Pakistan
Treaties between India and Pakistan
- A proxy war broke out between Indian and Pakistani army in Kashmir during 1947 itself. But this did not turn into a full war.
- In April 1965 Pakistan launched armed attacks in the Rann of Kutch area of Gujarat. This was followed by a bigger offensive in Jammu and Kashmir in August September.
- The India Pakistan Indus Waters Treaty was signed by Nehru and General Ayub Khan in 1960.
- Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistan's General Ayub Khan signed the Tashkent Agreement, brokered by the Soviet Union, in January 1966.