Class 12 - Sociology Important 4 Marks Questions and Answers

List of Questions and Answers

1.Explain the impact of British industrialisation on Indian Society.
Chapter 1 : Structural Change


  • Industrialisation refers to the emergence of machine production, based on the use of inanimate power resources like steam or electricity.
  • In India the impact of the very same British industrialisation led to deindustrialisation in some sectors.
  • Traditional exports of cotton and silk manufacturers from India declined in the face of Manchester competition.
  • This period also saw the further decline of cities such as Surat and Masulipatnam while Bombay and Madras grew.
  • At the end of the 19th century, with the installation of mechanised factory industries, some towns became much more heavily populated.
  • In India the initial impact of the same British industrialisation led to more people moving into agriculture.

2.Explain the struggles of the differently abled.
Chapter 5: Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion


  • The differently abled are not "disabled" only because they are physically or mentally ‘impaired’ but also because society is built in a manner that does not cater to their needs.
  • In India labels such as "disability", "handicap", "crippled", "blind" and "deaf" are used synonymously. Often these terms are hurled at people as insults.
  • Labels such as bechara (poor thing) accentuate the victim status for the disabled person.
  • The common perception views disability as retribution for past karma (actions) from which there can be no reprieve.
  • The dominant cultural construction in India therefore looks at disability as essentially a characteristic of the individual.
  • The disabled are rendered disabled not because they are biologically disabled but because society renders them so.
  • Disability creates and exacerbates poverty by increasing isolation and economic strain, not just for the individual but for the family.

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3.Competing interests do not always reflect clear class divide.Exemplify.
Chapter 3 - The Story of Indian Democracy

Competing interests operate on the Indian social scene and clamour for control of the State’s resources.
To explain the point “Competing interests do not always reflect clear class divide”, take the example of a factory being closed down because it emits toxic waste that affects the life of people.This case becomes the matter of life which, the Constitution protects. Due to factory closure it will render people jobless.Livelihood again, is a matter of life that the Constitution protects. It is interesting that at the time of drawing up the Constitution, the Constituent Assembly was fully aware of this complexity and plurality but was intent on securing social justice as a guarantee.

4) How interest groups are part and parcel of a functionary democracy? Discuss.
Chapter 3 - The Story of Indian Democracy


  • In a democratic system the interests of different groups are represented by political parties.
  • Interest Groups are organised to pursue specific interests in the political arena, operating primarily by lobbying the members of legislative bodies.
  • Different interest groups will work towards influencing political parties.
  • When certain groups feel that their interests are not being taken up, they may move to form an alternative party or they form pressure groups who lobby with the government.
  • In some situations, there may be political organisations which seek to achieve power but are denied the opportunity to do so through standard means.
  • These organisations are best regarded as movements until they achieve recognition.

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5.Explain the impact of land reforms on Indian agriculture after independence.
Chapter 4: Change and Development in Rural Society


  • In the year 1950s to the 1970s, a series of land reform laws were passed – at the national level as well as in the states.
  • After independence the first effective land reforms passed was to abolish the zamindari system, which removed the layer of intermediaries that stood between the cultivators and the state.
  • The next land reform law passed was tenancy abolition and regulation acts.They attempted either to outlaw tenancy altogether or to regulate rents to give some security to the tenants.
  • The third major category of land reform laws were the Land Ceiling Acts.These laws imposed an upper limit on the amount of land that can be owned by a particular family. The ceiling varies from region to region, depending on the kind of land, its productivity, and other such factors.
  • Land reforms are necessary not only to boost agricultural growth but also to eradicate poverty in rural areas and bring about social justice.

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6.Explain the changes brought about by globalisation in Print and Electronic media.
Chapter 7: Mass Media and Communications

Print Media:

  • In India the circulation of newspapers grew in spite of growth in television and internet.
  • A large number of glossy magazines have also made their entry into the market.
  • The reason for growth in print media like newspapers were seen because of the migration of literate people to cities.An example is The Hindi daily Hindustan in 2003 printed 64,000 copies of their Delhi edition, which jumped to 425,000 by 2005.
  • Another reason is the needs of the readers in the small towns and villages are different from that of the cities and the Indian language newspapers cater to those needs.
  • The Indian language newspapers have adopted advanced printing technologies and also attempted supplements, pullouts, and literary and niche booklets.
Electronic Media:
  • The staggering growth of Doordarshan and private satellite television has been one of the defining developments of contemporary India.
  • In 2002, 134 million individuals watched satellite TV on an average every week.
  • While Doordarshan was expanding rapidly in the 1980s, the cable television industry was mushrooming in major Indian cities.
  • The VCR greatly multiplied entertainment options for Indian audiences, providing alternatives to Doordarshan’s single channel programming.
  • There are growing number of news channels in Hindi and English, a large number of regional channels and an equally large number of reality shows, talk shows, Bollywood shows, family soaps, interactive shows, game shows and comedy shows.

7.Many tribal areas have rich tradition of grass-root democracy.ILlustrate with example.
Chapter 3 - The Story of Indian Democracy

Many tribal areas have had a rich tradition of grassroot democratic functioning.
We give an illustrative example from Meghalaya.

  • All the three major ethnic tribal groups, namely, the Khasis, Jaintias and the Garos have their own traditional political institutions that have existed for hundreds of years.
  • These political institutions were fairly well-developed and functioned at various tiers, such as the village level, clan level and state level.
  • For instance, in the traditional political system of the Khasis each clan had its own council known as the ‘Durbar Kur’ which was presided over by the clan headman.
  • Though there is a long tradition of grassroot political institutions in Meghalaya, a large chunk of tribal areas lie outside the provisions of the 73rd Amendment.
  • This may be because the concerned policy makers did not wish to interfere with the traditional tribal institutions.

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8.Land ceiling act proved to be toothless in most of the states.Give reasons.
Chapter 4: Change and Development in Rural Society


  • Land Ceiling Acts is one of the land reforms law started after india got independence.These laws imposed an upper limit on the amount of land that can be owned by a particular family. The ceiling varies from region to region, depending on the kind of land, its productivity, and other such factors.
  • Very productive land has a low ceiling while unproductive dry land has a higher ceiling limit.
  • According to these acts, the state is supposed to identify and take possession of surplus land (above the ceiling limit) held by each household, and redistribute it to landless families and households in other specified categories, such as SCs and STs.
  • There were many loopholes in the land ceiling act that helped many landowners to escape from having their surplus land taken over by the state.
  • Some very large estates were broken up, in most cases landowners managed to divide the land among relatives and others, including servants, in so-called ‘benami transfers’ – which allowed them to keep control over the land (in fact if not in name).
  • In some places, some rich farmers actually divorced their wives (but continued to live with them) in order to avoid the provisions of the Land Ceiling Act, which allowed a separate share for unmarried women but not for wives.

9.Explain the ideals of the Panchayati Raj.
Chapter 3 - The Story of Indian Democracy

Here is a list of ideals of Panchayati Raj:

  • The main idea is to ensure the village gets a grass root level democracy .
  • In 1992 that grassroots democracy was ushered in by the 73rd Constitutional Amendment. This act provided constitutional status to the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs).
  • It is compulsory now for local self-government bodies in rural and municipal areas to be elected every five years.
  • Control of local resources is given to the elected local bodies.
  • The 73rd and 74th amendments to the Constitution ensured the reservation of one third of the total seats for women in all elected offices of local bodies in both the rural and urban areas.

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10.Analyse the growth of the radio as a medium of communication in Independent India.
Chapter 7: Mass Media and Communications


  • When India gained independence in 1947, All India Radio had an infrastructure of six radio stations, located in metropolitan cities.
  • The country had 280,000 radio receiver sets for a population of 350 million people.
  • After independence the government gave priority to the expansion of the radio broadcasting infrastructure, especially in state capitals and in border areas.
  • Over the years, AIR has developed a formidable infrastructure for radio broadcasting in India.
  • It operates a three-tiered – national, regional, and local – service to cater to India’s geographic, linguistic and cultural diversity.

11.Analyse social reform movements initiated towards women’s equality and rights in the nineteenth century.
Chapter 8: Social Movements


  • The early 20th century saw the growth of women’s organisations at a national and local level. Organisations like The Women’s India Association (WIA) (1917), All India Women’s Conference (AIWC) (1926), National Council for Women in India (NCWI) (1925) started for women.
  • The AIWC Organisation began with the idea that ‘women’s welfare’ and ‘politics’ were mutually exclusive.
  • Women participated along with men in struggles and revolts originating in tribal and rural areas in the colonial period.Movements like Tebhaga movement in Bengal, the Telangana arms struggle ,Warli tribal revolt against bondage in Maharashtra are some examples.
  • Many of the women activists who were also involved in the nationalist movement got involved in the nation building task.
  • Over the years there have been numerous campaigns that have been taken up towards violence against women.
  • Important legal changes have taken place because of the women's movement. Issues of land rights, employment have been fought alongside rights against sexual harassment and dowry.

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12.Write a note on Communalism in India.
Chapter 6: The Challenges of Cultural Diversity


  • Communalism is said to be an aggressive political ideology linked to religion.
  • In the English language, “communal” means something related to a community or collectivity as different from an individual.
  • All communalists do believe in a political identity based on religion.
  • Communalists cultivate an aggressive political identity, and are prepared to condemn or attack everyone who does not share their identity.
  • One of the characteristic features of communalism is its claim that religious identity overrides everything else. Whether one is poor or rich, whatever one’s occupation, caste or political beliefs, it is religion alone that counts.
  • Communalism is an especially important issue in India because it has been a recurrent source of tension and violence.
  • During communal riots, people become faceless members of their respective communities. They are willing to kill, rape, and loot members of other communities in order to redeem their pride, to protect their home turf.

13.Analyse the state and non-state initiatives addressing caste and tribe discrimination.
Chapter 5: Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion


  • The most important state initiative attempting to compensate for past and present caste discrimination is the one popularly known as "reservations".
  • This involves the setting aside of some places or ‘seats’ for members of the Scheduled Castes and Tribes in different spheres of public life.
  • The initiatives provided reservations of seats in the State and Central legislatures (i.e., state assemblies, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha); reservation of jobs in government service across all departments and public sector companies; and reservation of seats in educational institutions.
  • The proportion of reserved seats is equal to the percentage share of the Scheduled Castes and Tribes in the total population.
  • In addition to reservations, there have been a number of laws passed to end, prohibit and punish caste discrimination, specially untouchability.
  • One of the earliest such laws was the Caste Disabilities Removal Act of 1850, which disallowed the curtailment of the rights of citizens due solely to change of religion or caste.
  • The 1850 Act was used to allow entry of Dalits to government schools.

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14.Explain the factors responsible for declining sex-ratio in India.
Chapter 2 - The Demographic Structure of the Indian Society

The sex ratio is an important indicator of gender balance in the population.
Following are the factors responsible for decline in sex-ratio:

  • The main health factor that affects women differently from men is childbearing. It is relevant to ask if the fall in the sex ratio may be partly due to the increased risk of death in childbirth that only women face.
  • severe neglect of girl babies in infancy, leading to higher death rates.
  • sex specific abortions that prevent girl babies from being born;
  • female infanticide (or the killing of girl babies due to religious or cultural beliefs)

15.Explain the impact of urbanisation on Indian Villages according to Sociologist M.S.A. Rao.
Chapter 1 - Structural Change

The impact of urbanisation on Indian Villages as per M.S.A Rao is as follows:

  • There are villages in which a sizeable number of people have sought employment in far-off cities.A considerable number of emigrants reside not only in Indian cities but also in overseas towns. There are many overseas migrants from Gujarat villages living in African and British towns.They have built fashionable houses in their natal villages, invested money on land and industry, and have donated literally to the establishment of educational institutions and trusts.
  • The second kind of urban impact is to be seen in villages which are situated near an industrial town.Industrial town like Bhilai comes up in the midst of villages, some villages are totally uprooted while the lands of others are partially acquired. The latter are found to receive an influx of immigrant workers, which not only stimulates a demand for houses and a market inside the village but creates problems of ordering relationships between the native residents and the immigrants.
  • The growth of metropolitan cities accounts for the third type of urban impact on the surrounding villages.While a few villages are totally absorbed in the process of expansion, only the land of many others, excluding the inhabited area, is used for urban development.

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Answers coming soon for below questions.

16.Explain the population policy in India.

17.Write a note on the features of caste.

18.Explain the “Survey” as a method in sociological research.

19.Explain the impact of British Industrialisation in India.

20.Discuss the images of industrial society.

21.Discuss how work is carried out in an industry with an example.

22.Explain survey as a sociological research method.

23.Write a note on the significance of the Dhorai tribal market.

24.Explain the National Population Policy in India.

25.Explain the causes for the declining sex-ratio in India?

26.Analyse the population policy in India.

27.Explain the impact of national development on tribals in India.

28."Communalism is a recurrent source of tension and violence in India". Explain.

29.Write a note on the powers and social responsibilities of Panchayats.

30."Indian industrialisation differs from that of the developed world". Analyse.

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31."The contractor system is most visible in the hiring of casual labour for work on construction sites". Analyse.

32.Explain the Dalit movement as a caste based movement.

33.Analyse the Population Policy in India.

34."The tribals suffered in the name of national development".Explain.

35.Explain the role of social reformers in the 19th century towards the struggle for women's equality and rights.

36.Critically evaluate the process of Sanskritization in India.

37.Explain the negative consequences of the Green Revolution.

38.Explain the dangerous working condition of workers in mining areas and the measures adopted by the government.

39.How has liberalisation brought about changes in the Indian Industry?

40.Analyse the impact of globalisation on print media.