Chapter 5: Therapeutic Approaches Questions and Answers

List of Questions and Answers

Q 1.What is the term used when a client learns to behave in a certain way by observing the behaviour of a role model or the therapist?

Modelling is the procedure wherein the client learns to behave in a certain way by observing the behaviour of a role model or the therapist who initially acts as the role model.

Q 2.When a child is given a coupon to buy something from the school canteen for punctuality, it is a form of ________________ .
(a) Aversive conditioning
(b) Token economy
(c) Modelling
(d) Inhibition

Ans: (b) Token economy

Q 3. The client-centered therapy was given by ________________.
(a) Albert Ellis
(b) Carl Rogers
(c) Sigmund Freud
(d) Freiderick Perls

Ans:(b) Carl Rogers

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Q 4.The most popular therapy which combines cognitive therapy with behavioural techniques is ____________ .
(a) Biomedical therapy
(b) Gestalt therapy
(c) Client-centred therapy
(d) Cognitive behaviour therapy

Ans: (d)Cognitive behaviour therapy

Q 5.State two psychological disorders in which cognitive behaviour therapy is used for treatment.

Psychological disorders such as anxiety, depression, panic attacks, and borderline personality are treated with the help of Cognitive behaviour Therapy.

Q 6.What is the meaning of logotherapy?

Logos is the Greek word for soul and Logotherapy means treatment for the soul. Victor Frankl, a psychiatrist and neurologist propounded the Logotherapy.

Q 7.State four characteristics of psychotherapeutic approaches.

(i) there is systematic application of principles underlying the different theories of therapy,
(ii) persons who have received practical training under expert supervision can practice psychotherapy, and not everybody. An untrained person may unintentionally cause more harm than any good
(iii) the therapeutic situation involves a therapist and a client who seeks and receives help for her/his emotional problems (this person is the focus of attention in the therapeutic process), and
(iv) the interaction of these two persons — the therapist and the client — results in the consolidation/formation of the therapeutic relationship.

Q 8.What is occupational therapy ?

In occupational therapy, patients are taught skills such as

  • candle making,
  • paper bag making and
  • weaving to help them to form a work discipline.

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Q 9.How is empathy different from sympathy?

In sympathy, one has compassion and pity towards the suffering of another but is not able to feel like the other person.
On the other hand, empathy is present when one is able to understand the plight of another person, and feel like the other person.
It means understanding things from the other person’s perspective, i.e. putting oneself in the other person’s shoes.
Empathy enriches the therapeutic relationship and transforms it into a healing relationship.

Q 10.Explain the concept of "unconditional positive regard".

Unconditional positive regard is the relation that the therapist shows towards the client during treatment.The therapist conveys by her/his words and behaviours that s/he is not judging the client and will continue to show the same positive feelings towards the client even if the client is rude or confides all the ‘wrong’ things that s/he may have done or thought about.
The therapist encourages this by being accepting, empathic, genuine and warm to the client.

Q 11. Analyse the Behaviour Technique of Systematic Desensitisation.


  • Systematic desensitisation is a technique introduced by Wolpe for treating phobias or irrational fears.
  • The client is interviewed to elicit fear provoking situations and together with the client, the therapist prepares a hierarchy of anxiety-provoking stimuli with the least anxiety-provoking stimuli at the bottom of the hierarchy.
  • The therapist relaxes the client and asks the client to think about the least anxiety-provoking situation.
  • The client is asked to stop thinking of the fearful situation if the slightest tension is felt.
  • Over sessions, the client is able to imagine more severe fear provoking situations while maintaining the relaxation.
  • The client gets systematically desensitised to the fear.

Q 12.Analyse Biomedical Therapy.


  • Medicines may be prescribed to treat psychological disorders.
  • Prescription of medicines for treatment of mental disorders is done by qualified medical professionals known as psychiatrists.
  • The nature of medicines used depends on the nature of the disorders.For example mental disorders such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder require anti-psychotic drugs.
  • Common mental disorders such as generalised anxiety or reactive depression may also require milder drugs.
  • The medicine used to treat mental disorder can cause side effects and they need to be understood and monitored properly hence medication has to given under proper guidance of the doctor.
  • It is dangerous to self-medicate i.e take medicines on its own without doctors consultation.Drugs taken by normal individuals use to stay awake to study for examinations or to get a ‘high’ at a party have dangerous side-effects.

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Q 13.Analyse the Rehabilitation of the Mentally Ill.


  • The treatment of psychological disorders has two components, i.e. reduction of symptoms, and improving the level of functioning or quality of life.
  • The patient with severe disorders like schizophrenia suffer from negative symptoms such as disinterest and lack of motivation to do work or to interact with people.Such patient needs rehabilitation to become self-sufficient.
  • The aim of rehabilitation is to empower the patient to become a productive member of society to the extent possible.
  • In rehabilitation, the patients are given occupational therapy, social skills training, and vocational therapy.
  • In occupational therapy, the patients are taught skills such as candle making, paper bag making and weaving to help them to form a work discipline.
  • Social skills training helps the patients to develop interpersonal skills through role play, imitation and instruction.
  • Cognitive retraining is given to improve the basic cognitive functions of attention, memory and executive functions.
  • Vocational training is given wherein the patient is helped to gain skills necessary to undertake productive employment.

Q 14.Discuss "transference" as a means of treatment in psychoanalytic approach.


  • The therapist maintains a non-judgmental yet permissive attitude and allows the client to continue with this process of emotional identification. This is the process of transference.
  • The client acts out its frustrations, anger, fear, and depression that are harboured on the person in the past, but could not express at that time.
  • The therapist becomes a substitute for that person in the present. This stage is called transference neurosis.
  • A full-blown transference neurosis is helpful in making the therapist aware of the nature of intrapsychic conflicts suffered by the client.
  • There is the positive transference in which the client idolises, or falls in love with the therapist, and seeks the therapist’s approval.
  • Negative transference is present when the client has feelings of hostility, anger, and resentment towards the therapist.

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