1.Describe the method of participant observation.
When the observer is actively involved in the process of observing by becoming an active member of the setting where the observation takes place is called participant observation.
For example, an observer may take a part-time job in a shopping mall showroom to become an insider in order to observe behaviour of customers. This technique is widely used by anthropologists whose objective is to gain a firsthand perspective of a system from within which otherwise may not be readily available to an outsider.
2.State two skills of an effective psychologist.
The skills required to become an effective psychologist are :
General Skills: It is one of the important skills and required by all type of psychologist irrespective of their specialisation. Examples of General skills are :
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3.What do you understand by the term skill?
The term ‘skill’ may be defined as proficiency, facility or dexterity that is acquired or developed through training and experience.
The Webster dictionary defines it as “possession of the qualities required to do something or get something done”.
4.What is public communication?
Public communication is characterised by a speaker sending a message to an audience.It may be direct, such as face-to-face messages delivered by the speaker to an audience, or indirect, such as message relayed over radio or television.
5.What is paraphrasing?
When someone is listening to you and told to restate what you said, at that time the person is not able to repeat your exact words.S/he makes a summary of the ideas just received and provides you with a restatement of what s/he understands.This is called "paraphrasing". It allows you to understand how much s/he understood of what was communicated.
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Q 6. Differentiate between interpersonal and intrapersonal communication.
|Interpersonal Communication||Intrapersonal Communication|
|Interpersonal communication refers to the communication that takes place between two or more persons who establish a communicative relationship.||Intrapersonal communication involves communicating with yourself.|
|Forms of interpersonal communication include face-to-face or mediated conversations,interviews and small group discussions.||Forms of Intrapersonal communication include activities as thought processes, personal decision making, and focusing on self.|
Q 7. Explain the role of culture in listening.
Q 8. What are the generic skills needed by all psychologists? OR What are the intellectual and personal skills required by the therapist to deal with the client.
Generic skills are important skills that are mandatory for all psychologists irrespective of their field of specialisation.
These skills include personal as well as intellectual skills.
Q 9.Explain three skills of communication.
Communication skills is one of the most important skills you will need to succeed in life.
We are going to discuss the following three skills of communication.
One important component of communication is speaking with the use of language.
Q 10.Non-verbal acts in any talk are referred to as __________.
Q 11.Describe the three stages of the interview.
The three stages of interview are:
Opening of the Interview:The opening of the interview involves establishing rapport between two communicators.The purpose is to make the interviewee comfortable.
Generally, the interviewer starts the conversation and does most of the talking at the outset. This serves two functions, i.e. it establishes the goal of the interview, and gives the interviewee time to become comfortable with the situation and the interviewer.
Body of the Interview:The body of the interview is the heart of the process. In this stage, the interviewer asks questions in an attempt to generate information and data that are required for the purpose.
Closing the Interview:While closing the interview, the interviewer should summarise what s/he has been able to gather. One should end with a discussion of the next step to be taken. When the interview is ending, the interviewer should give a chance to the interviewee to ask questions or offer comments.
Q 12.Differentiate between Naturalistic and Participant observation giving their advantages and disadvantages.
|Naturalistic Observation||Participant Observation|
|Naturalistic Observation is one of the primary ways of learning about the way people behave in a given setting.||In a situation where a company is giving a heavy discount in a shopping mall .For this, you could visit the shopping mall where the discounted items are showcased and systematically observe what people do and say before and after the purchases have been made.|
|In Participant Observation the observer is actively involved in the process of observing by becoming an active member of the setting where the observation takes place.||For the same situation in case of participant observation an observer may take a part-time job in a shopping mall showroom to become an insider in order to observe variations in the behaviour of customers.|
Q 13.What is Counselling ?. Explain its nature.
Counselling involves helping relationships, that includes someone seeking help, and someone willing to give help, who is capable of or trained to help in a setting that permits help to be given and received.
The nature of counselling is as follows:
Q 14.What are the ethical issues according to A.P.A (American Psychological Association) that a psychologist must know while practicing counselling?
The American Psychological Association (APA) has developed a code of ethical conduct for behaviour and decision-making in actual clinical settings.The practical knowledge of these ethical domains can guide the practice of counselling in achieving its desired purpose. Some of the APA practice guidelines are:
Q 15.Explain the characteristics of an effective helper.
The counsellor has the responsibility for ensuring that her/his client is benefited from counselling and its therapeutic effects are achieved. The success of a counselling process depends on the skill, knowledge, attitude, personal qualities and behaviour of a counsellor, any or all of which can enhance or diminish the helping process. There are four qualities associated with effective counsellors. These include: (i) Authenticity, (ii) Positive regard for others, (iii) Ability to empathise, and (iv) Paraphrasing.
Authenticity means that your behavioural expressions are consistent with what you value and the way you feel and relate to your inner self-image. Your image or perception of yourself makes up your “I”. The self perceived “I” is revealed through ideas, words, actions, clothing, and your life-style. All of these communicate your “I” to others. Those who come into close contact with you also build their own image of you for themselves, and they also sometimes communicate this image to you. For example, friends tell you what they like and dislike about you. Your teachers and parents praise and/ or criticise you.
Positive Regard for Others
In a counselling-counsellor relationship, a good relationship allows freedom of expression. It reflects acceptance of the idea that the feelings of both are important. We should remember that when we form a new relationship, we experience feelings of uncertainty and anxiety. Such feelings get minimised when a counsellor extends a positive regard to the client by accepting that it is all right to feel the way the client is feeling.
Empathy is the ability of a counsellor to understand the feelings of another person from her/his perspective. It is like stepping into someone else’s shoes and trying to understand the pain and troubled feelings of the other person.
It involves the ability of a counsellor to reflect on what the client says and feels using different words.
Q 16.Examine the role of listening in communication. How does culture influence the development of the listening process?
Listening is an important skill that we use daily. Your academic success, employment achievement, and personal happiness, to a large extent, depend upon your ability to listen effectively.
Listening requires a person to be attentive. S/he should be patient, non-judgmental and yet have the capacity to analyse and respond.
Role of culture in listening
Q 17.How does understanding of body language help in effective communication?