Chapter 4 : Human Development - Important Questions and Answers

List of Questions and Answers

1.Piaget's stage of cognitive development in which an infant explores the world by coordination of sensory experiences with physical actions is called as ____________.
(a) Sensorimotor stage
(b) Preoperational stage
(c) Concrete operational stage
(d) Formal operational stage
(Chapter 4 - Human Development)

Ans: (a) Sensorimotor stage

More Questions and Answers Coming Soon.

2.Explain Career and Work as challenges of adulthood.
(Chapter 4 - Human Development)

Ans:

  • Earning a living, choosing an occupation, and developing a career are important themes for people in their twenties and thirties.
  • Entering work life is a challenging event in anyone’s life.
  • There are apprehensions regarding different adjustments, proving one’s competence, performance, dealing with competition, and coping with expectations both of the employers and oneself.
  • It is also the beginning of new roles and responsibilities. Developing and evaluating a career becomes an important task of adulthood.

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3. Explain concrete operational stage.
(Chapter 4 - Human Development)

Ans:

  • The stage of concrete operational thought, which is made up of operations — mental actions that allows the child to do mentally what was done physically before.
  • Concrete operations are also mental actions that are reversible.
  • Concrete operations allow the child to focus on different characteristics and not focus on one aspect of the object. This helps the child to appreciate that there are different ways of looking at things, which also results in the decline of her/his egocentrism.

4. Describe the role of ‘reflexes’ in the motor development of newborns.
(Chapter 4: Human Development)

Ans:

  • The newborn's movements are governed by reflexes — which are automatic, built-in responses to stimuli.
  • They are genetically-carried survival mechanisms, and are the building blocks for subsequent motor development.
  • Before the newborns have had the opportunity to learn, reflexes act as adaptive mechanisms.
  • Some reflexes present in the newborn — coughing, blinking, and yawning persist throughout their lives and others disappear as the brain functions mature and voluntary control over behaviour starts developing .

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5.Describe the motor development during the stage of infancy.
(Chapter 4: Human Development)

Ans:

  • The newborn's movements are governed by reflexes — which are automatic, built-in responses to stimuli. They are genetically-carried survival mechanisms, and are the building blocks for subsequent motor development.
  • As the brain is developing, physical development also progresses. As the infant grows, the muscles and nervous system mature which lead to the development of finer skills.
  • Basic physical (motor) skills include grasping and reaching for objects, sitting, crawling, walking and running.
  • The sequence of physical (motor) development is universal, with minor exceptions.