Class 11 - Psychology Important 3 Marks Questions and Answers

List of Questions and Answers

1.Discuss how Psychology is related to Medicine.
Chapter 1 : What is Psychology

Following points shows that Psychology is related to Medicine:

  • Doctors have realised that a healthy body requires a healthy mind.A successful doctor looks at the psychological as well as physical well-being of the patients.
  • A large number of hospitals now employ psychologists.
  • The role of psychologists is to prevent patients from engaging in health hazardous behaviours and in adhering to the prescribed doctor's regimen are some of the important areas where the two disciplines have come together.
  • Doctors felt the need of psychological counselling while treating patients suffering from cancer, AIDS, and the physically challenged, or handling patients in the Intensive Care Unit, and patients during post operative care

2.Explain the three terms used in the definition of psychology.
Chapter 1 : What is Psychology

Psychology is defined formally as a science which studies mental processes, experiences and behaviour in different contexts.
Mental Processes:We use our mental processes when we think or try to solve a problem, to know or remember something.Mental processes, such as remembering, learning, knowing, perceiving, feeling are of interest to psychologists.They study these processes trying to understand how the mind works and to help us improve the uses and applications of these mental capacities.
Experiences:Psychologists also study experiences of people.Psychologists have focused on the experiences of pain being undergone by terminally ill patients or of psychological pain felt in bereavement, besides experiences which lead to positive feelings, such as in romantic encounters. Experiences are influenced by internal and external conditions of the experiencer. If you are travelling in a crowded bus during a hot summer day, you may not experience the usual discomfort if you are going for a picnic with some close friends. Thus, the nature of experience can only be understood by analysing a complex set of internal and external conditions.
Behaviour: are responses or reactions we make or activities we engage in. Behaviours may be simple or complex, short or enduring. Some behaviours are overt. They can be outwardly seen or sensed by an observer. Some are internal or covert.Psychologists study behaviour as an association between stimulus (S) and response (R). Both stimulus and response can be internal or external.

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3.Scientific observation is different from day to day observation in three respects. Explain.
Chapter 2 : Methods of Enquiry in Psychology

(a) Selection

  • Psychologist select one particular behaviour for observation instead of considering all.
  • For example, you may be interested to know how children studying in Class XI spend their time in school.
  • Based on this example two things are possible at this stage.
  • As a researcher, you might think that you have a fairly good idea about what happens in school. You might prepare a list of activities and go to the school with a view to finding out their occurrences.
  • Another aspect is, you do not know what happens in the school and, by your observation you would like to discover it.
(b) Recording:While observing, a researcher records the selected behaviour using different means, such as marking tallies for the already identified behaviour whenever they occur, taking notes describing each activity in greater detail using short hand or symbols, photographs, video recording, etc.
(c) Analysis of data:After the observations have been made, psychologists analyse whatever they have recorded with a view to derive some meaning out of it.

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4.State and explain any three goals of psychological enquiry.
Chapter 2 : Methods of Enquiry in Psychology

Following are three goals of psychological enquiry :

  • In a psychological study, we attempt to describe a behaviour or a phenomenon as accurately as possible.This helps in distinguishing a particular behaviour from other behaviours.
  • An example, the researcher may be interested in observing study habits among students.Study habits may consist of diverse range of behaviours, such as attending all your classes regularly, submitting assignments on time, planning your study schedule, studying according to the set schedule, revising your work on a daily basis etc.
  • The researcher needs to describe her/his meaning of study habits. The description requires recording of a particular behaviour which helps in its proper understanding.
  • The second goal of scientific enquiry is prediction of behaviour. If you are able to understand and describe the behaviour accurately, you come to know the relationship of a particular behaviour with other types of behaviours, events, or phenomena.
  • You can then forecast that under certain conditions this particular behaviour may occur within a certain margin of error.
  • For example, on the basis of study, a researcher is able to establish a positive relationship between the amount of study time and achievement in different subjects.
  • Later, if you come to know that a particular child devotes more time for study, you can predict that the child is likely to get good marks in the examination. Prediction becomes more accurate with the increase in the number of persons observed.
  • The third goal of psychological enquiry is to know the causal factors or determinants of behaviour. Psychologists are primarily interested in knowing the factors that make behaviour occur.
  • For example, what makes some children more attentive in the class? Why some children devote less time for study as compared to others?
  • Thus, this goal is concerned with identifying the determinants or antecedent conditions of the behaviour being studied so that cause-effect relationship between two variables (objects) or events could be established.

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5.Describe the role of clinical psychologists.
Chapter 1 : What is Psychology

A clinical psychologist has a degree in psychology, which includes intensive training in treating people with psychological disorders.
Clinical Psychologist has following role to play:

  • Clinical psychologists specialise in helping clients with behavioural problems by providing therapy for various mental disorders and in cases of anxiety or fear, or with stress at home or at work.
  • They work either as private practitioners or at hospitals, mental institutions, or with social agencies.
  • They may be involved in conducting interviews and administering psychological tests to diagnose the client’s problems, and use psychological methods for their treatment and rehabilitation.
  • Job opportunities in clinical psychology attract quite a few to this field of psychology.

6. Explain Participant and Non-Participant observation.
Chapter 2 : Methods of Enquiry in Psychology

Observation can be done in two ways.
One, you may decide to observe the person or event from a distance.
Two, the observer may become part of the group being observed.
Participant Observation

  • In participant observation, the observer becomes a part of the school or the group of people being observed.
  • In participant observation, the observer takes some time to establish a rapport with the group so that they start accepting her/him as one of the group members.
  • The degree of involvement of the observer with the group being observed would vary depending upon the focus of the study.
Non-Participant Observation
  • In non participant observation , you decide to observe the person or event from a distance. An example is you want to observe the pattern of interaction between teachers and students in a particular class.
  • There are many ways of achieving this goal. You can install a video camera to record the classroom activities, which you can see later and analyse.
  • Alternatively, you may decide to sit in a corner of the class without interfering or participating in their everyday activities. This type of observation is called non-participant observation.
  • The danger with this type of observation is that when you know someone is sitting and observing that will bring a change in the behaviour of students and the teacher.

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7. State the functions of Cerebellum.
Chapter 3 : The Bases of Human Behaviour


  • This highly developed part of the hindbrain can be easily recognised by its wrinkled surface.
  • It maintains and controls posture and equilibrium of the body.
  • Its main function is coordination of muscular movements.
  • Though the motor commands originate in the forebrain, the cerebellum receives and coordinates them to relay to the muscles.
  • It also stores the memory of movement patterns so that we do not have to concentrate on how to walk, dance, or ride a bicycle.

8. State three points of difference between Rods and Cones.
Chapter 5 : Sensory, Attentional and Perceptional Processes


Rods Cones
Rods are the receptors for scotopic vision (night vision). Cones are the receptors for photopic (day light) vision.
They operate at low intensities of light, and lead to achromatic (colourless) vision. They operate at high levels of illumination, and lead to chromatic (colour) vision.
Each eye contains about 100 million rods. Each eye contains about 7 million cones.

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9. Describe the role of "reflexes" in the motor development of newborns.
Chapter 4 : Human Development


  • The newborn's movements are governed by reflexes — which are automatic, built-in responses to stimuli.
  • They are genetically-carried survival mechanisms, and are the building blocks for subsequent motor development.
  • Before the newborns have had the opportunity to learn, reflexes act as adaptive mechanisms.
  • Some reflexes present in the newborn — coughing, blinking, and yawning persist throughout their lives and others disappear as the brain functions mature and voluntary control over behaviour starts developing .

10. Analyse how "Relaxation" is useful to manage examination anxiety.
Chapter 9 : Motivation and Emotion

Relaxation techniques help you calm your nerves and give you an opportunity to reframe your thoughts. There are many different relaxation techniques. In general, this involves sitting or lying down in a comfortable posture in a quiet place, relaxing your muscles, reducing the external stimulation as well as minimising the flow of thoughts and focusing.

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11. Analyse Cannon Bard's theory of emotions.
Chapter 9 : Motivation and Emotion


  • The Cannon-Bard theory claims that the entire process of emotion is mediated by thalamus which after perception of the emotion-provoking stimulus, conveys this information simultaneously to the cerebral cortex and to the skeletal muscles and sympathetic nervous system.
  • The cerebral cortex then determines the nature of the perceived stimulus by referring to past experiences.
  • This determines the subjective experience of the emotion. At the same time the sympathetic nervous system and the muscles provide physiological arousal and prepare the individual to take action.

12.Explain Speed and Power tests.
Chapter 2 : Methods of Enquiry in Psychology

Psychological tests are also classified into speed and power tests.

  • In a speed test, there is a time limit within which the test taker is required to answer all the items. Such a test evaluates the individual on the basis of time taken to answer the items accurately.
  • In a speed test, all the items are of the same degree of difficulty.
  • On the other hand, power test assesses the underlying ability (or power) of the individuals by allowing them sufficient time, i.e. these tests do not have any time limit.
  • In a power test, the items are generally arranged in an increasing order of difficulty.If a person, for example, is unable to solve the 6th item, s/he will have difficulty in answering the subsequent items.
  • It is, however, difficult to construct a pure speed or power test. Majority of the tests are a combination of both speed and power.

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13.Describe the motor development during the stage of infancy.
Chapter 4 : Human Development


  • The newborn's movements are governed by reflexes — which are automatic, built-in responses to stimuli. They are genetically-carried survival mechanisms, and are the building blocks for subsequent motor development.
  • As the brain is developing, physical development also progresses. As the infant grows, the muscles and nervous system mature which lead to the development of finer skills.
  • Basic physical (motor) skills include grasping and reaching for objects, sitting, crawling, walking and running.
  • The sequence of physical (motor) development is universal, with minor exceptions.

14.Explain Observational learning with examples.
Chapter 6 : Learning

Learning takes place by Observing others. Here is an example that explains it:
Example 1:Fashion designers employ tall, pretty, and gracious young girls and tall, smart, and well-built young boys for popularising clothes of different designs and fabrics. People observe them on televised fashion shows and advertisements in magazines and newspapers. They imitate these models.
Example 2: children observe adults’ behaviours, at home and during social ceremonies and functions. They enact adults in their plays and games. For instance, young children play games of marriage ceremonies, birthday parties, thief and policeman, house keeping, etc. Actually they enact in their games what they observe in society, on television, and read in books.
Observing superiors and likeable persons and then emulating their behaviour in a novel social situation is a common experience.
Children learn most of the social behaviours by observing and emulating adults.

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