Chapter 2 : Methods of Enquiry in Psychology - Important Questions and Answers

List of Questions and Answers

1.The variables on which the effect of independent variable is observed is called___________.
(Chapter 2: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology)

Ans:dependent variable

2.State two points of difference between Speed tests and Power tests.
(Chapter 2: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology)

Ans:

Speed Test Power Test
In a speed test, there is a time limit within which the test taker is required to answer all the items. Power test assesses the underlying ability (or power) of the individuals by allowing them sufficient time, i.e. these tests do not have any time limit.
In a speed test, all the items are of the same degree of difficulty. In a power test, the items are generally arranged in an increasing order of difficulty.

................................ Advertisement ................................

3.State two points of difference between Structured and Unstructured interview.
(Chapter 2: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology)

Ans:

Structured Interview Unstructured Interview
A structured interview is one where the questions in the schedule are written clearly in a particular sequence. In unstructured interview the interviewer has the flexibility to take decisions about the questions to be asked and also the sequence in which questions are to be asked.
The interviewer has little or no liberty to make changes in the wordings of the questions or the order in which they are to be asked. The interviewer has the liberty to change the wording of the questions to be asked.
The responses to these questions are also, in some cases, specified in advance. These are called close-ended questions. The responses are not specified in such type of interviews, the respondent can answer the questions in the way s/he chooses to.Such questions are called open-ended questions.

4.Explain Voluntary Participation as one of the ethical issues.
(Chapter 2 - Methods of Enquiry in Psychology)

Ans:

  • This principle states that the persons on whom you want to conduct the study should have the choice to decide whether to participate or not to participate in the study.
  • The participants should have the freedom to decide about their participation without any pressure or excessive inducement, and the freedom to withdraw from the research without penalty, once it has begun.

................................ Advertisement ................................

5.Scientific observation is different from day to day observation in three respects. Explain.
(Chapter 2: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology)

Ans:
(a) Selection

  • Psychologist select one particular behaviour for observation instead of considering all.
  • For example, you may be interested to know how children studying in Class XI spend their time in school.
  • Based on this example two things are possible at this stage.
  • As a researcher, you might think that you have a fairly good idea about what happens in school. You might prepare a list of activities and go to the school with a view to finding out their occurrences.
  • Another aspect is, you do not know what happens in the school and, by your observation you would like to discover it.
(b) Recording:While observing, a researcher records the selected behaviour using different means, such as marking tallies for the already identified behaviour whenever they occur, taking notes describing each activity in greater detail using short hand or symbols, photographs, video recording, etc.
(c) Analysis of data:After the observations have been made, psychologists analyse whatever they have recorded with a view to derive some meaning out of it.

6.State and explain any three goals of psychological enquiry.
(Chapter 2: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology)

Ans:
Following are three goals of psychological enquiry :
Description

  • In a psychological study, we attempt to describe a behaviour or a phenomenon as accurately as possible.This helps in distinguishing a particular behaviour from other behaviours.
  • An example, the researcher may be interested in observing study habits among students.Study habits may consist of diverse range of behaviours, such as attending all your classes regularly, submitting assignments on time, planning your study schedule, studying according to the set schedule, revising your work on a daily basis etc.
  • The researcher needs to describe her/his meaning of study habits. The description requires recording of a particular behaviour which helps in its proper understanding.
Prediction
  • The second goal of scientific enquiry is prediction of behaviour. If you are able to understand and describe the behaviour accurately, you come to know the relationship of a particular behaviour with other types of behaviours, events, or phenomena.
  • You can then forecast that under certain conditions this particular behaviour may occur within a certain margin of error.
  • For example, on the basis of study, a researcher is able to establish a positive relationship between the amount of study time and achievement in different subjects.
  • Later, if you come to know that a particular child devotes more time for study, you can predict that the child is likely to get good marks in the examination. Prediction becomes more accurate with the increase in the number of persons observed.
Explanation
  • The third goal of psychological enquiry is to know the causal factors or determinants of behaviour. Psychologists are primarily interested in knowing the factors that make behaviour occur.
  • For example, what makes some children more attentive in the class? Why some children devote less time for study as compared to others?
  • Thus, this goal is concerned with identifying the determinants or antecedent conditions of the behaviour being studied so that cause-effect relationship between two variables (objects) or events could be established.

................................ Advertisement ................................

7.Explain Participant and Non-Participant observation.
(Chapter 2: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology)

Ans:
Observation can be done in two ways.
One, you may decide to observe the person or event from a distance.
Two, the observer may become part of the group being observed.
Participant Observation

  • In participant observation, the observer becomes a part of the school or the group of people being observed.
  • In participant observation, the observer takes some time to establish a rapport with the group so that they start accepting her/him as one of the group members.
  • The degree of involvement of the observer with the group being observed would vary depending upon the focus of the study.
Non-Participant Observation
  • In non participant observation , you decide to observe the person or event from a distance. An example is you want to observe the pattern of interaction between teachers and students in a particular class.
  • There are many ways of achieving this goal. You can install a video camera to record the classroom activities, which you can see later and analyse.
  • Alternatively, you may decide to sit in a corner of the class without interfering or participating in their everyday activities. This type of observation is called non-participant observation.
  • The danger with this type of observation is that when you know someone is sitting and observing that will bring a change in the behaviour of students and the teacher.

................................ Advertisement ................................

8.Explain Speed and Power tests.
(Chapter 2: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology)

Ans:
Psychological tests are also classified into speed and power tests.

  • In a speed test, there is a time limit within which the test taker is required to answer all the items. Such a test evaluates the individual on the basis of time taken to answer the items accurately.
  • In a speed test, all the items are of the same degree of difficulty.
  • On the other hand, power test assesses the underlying ability (or power) of the individuals by allowing them sufficient time, i.e. these tests do not have any time limit.
  • In a power test, the items are generally arranged in an increasing order of difficulty.If a person, for example, is unable to solve the 6th item, s/he will have difficulty in answering the subsequent items.
  • It is, however, difficult to construct a pure speed or power test. Majority of the tests are a combination of both speed and power.

9. What do you understand by demographic information?
(Chapter 2: Methods of Enquiry in Psychology)

Ans:This information generally includes personal information like name, age, gender, birth order, number of siblings, education, occupation, marital status, number of children, locality of residence, caste, religion, parental education, occupation, and family income, etc.

More Questions and Answers Coming Soon.